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Basic Knowledge
4.2 Cement Development History
  • Detailed description
About 2000 years ago,The Greek and Roman people used a lime and ash mixture in building engineering. They reacts slowly in the water and become the hard solid, this is the earliest applied cement. 
In 1824, the English man J Aspdin burned the limestone and clay artificial mixture into a kind of hydraulic gelled material. The appearance and color of this gelled material is similar with the high-quality Portland stone the British used in building in that time. So it is called Portland cement. And he also got the patent therefore. In 1825, he put a factory and began to product in British. But the product was low quality for the burning temperature was not high enough. The really similar to the now Portland cement was product in 1850 by English man I.C.Jone. From then on the Portland cement industry began. For more than one hundred years, the Portland cement production process and performance has improved, and a lot of new varieties have developed; now it has developed over 100 types.
In 1756, English engineering J Smeaton found that the clay must be added into the limestone and burn together in order to get the hydraulic lime when he was studying the lime hydraulic property. The best masonry mortars underwater construction is prepared by harden lime and cinerite.
In 1813, a French civil engineer found that the cement prepared with clay and lime (3:1) has the best properties.   
In 1877, the British people Crampton invented rotary furnace, and in 1885, Lansam improved it to the better one.
In the 20th century, a number of cement used in special architectural engineering was successfully developed, such as high aluminum cement, special cement and so on while people was improved the performance of Portland cement continuously. The cement type have developed to more than 100 in all over the world, and in 2007, the cement annual output is about 2 billion tons.
In China, the first cement factory was set up at Kaiping, Tangshan, Heibei province in 1889. And in 1906, Qixinyanghui company ltd company was set up at Tangshang. It started the China cement industry, and its annual output of cement is 40000 tons. In 1949, cement annual output is 6600 million tons and it up to 120 million tons in 1984. The cement developed from the only Portland cement to more than 60 varieties. In 1970s, sulphate aluminium cement is invented and in 1980s, aluminoferic cement industry product is first invented in China.